Dom of religion and accommodating religious dress in schools
The anxious tenderness of his father was continually employed to bestow on him those advantages which he might perhaps esteem the more highly, as he himself had been deprived of them; and the most skilful masters of every science and of every art had laboured to form the mind and body of the young prince.1 The knowledge which they painfully communicated was displayed with ostentation and celebrated with lavish praise. 7) expresses the influence of Pulcheria, in gentle and courtly language, τὰς βασιλικὰς σημειώσεις ὑπηπετουμένη καὶ διευθύνουσα. His soft and tractable disposition received the fair impression of their judicious precepts, and the absence of passion might easily be mistaken for the strength of reason. Gratian survived those memorable events only four or five years; but he survived his reputation; and, before he fell a victim to rebellion, he had lost, in a great measure, the respect and confidence of the Roman world. From Nicephorus, indeed, I have ventured to assume her age. The remarkable alteration of his character or conduct may not be imputed to the arts of flattery which had besieged the son of Valentinian from his infancy; nor to the headstrong passions which that gentle youth appears to have escaped. 21) mentions her name (Athenais, the daughter of Leontius, an Athenian sophist), her baptism, marriage, and poetical genius. The writer of a romance would not have that Athenais was near twenty-eight years old when she inflamed the heart of a young emperor. Large parks were enclosed for the Imperial pleasures, and plentifully stocked with every species of wild beasts; and Gratian neglected the duties, and even the dignity, of his rank, to consume whole days in the vain display of his dexterity and boldness in the chase. Flaccilla, the eldest daughter, either died before Arcadius, or, if she lived to the year 431 (Marcellin. 234) it is not easy to acquit Pulcheria of some share in the pious fraud; which must have been transacted when she was more than five and thirty years of age.72 There is a remarkable difference between the two ecclesiastical historians, who in general bear so close a resemblance. His gentle and amiable disposition endeared him to his private friends, the graceful affability of his manners engaged the affection of the people: the men of letters, who enjoyed the liberality, acknowledged the taste and eloquence, of their sovereign; his valour and dexterity in arms were equally applauded by the soldiers; and the clergy considered the humble piety of Gratian as the first and most useful of his virtues. Those authors had probably seen original pictures of the empress Eudocia. The victory of Colmar had delivered the West from a formidable invasion; and the grateful provinces of the East ascribed the merits of Theodosius to the author of greatness and of the public safety. The modern Greeks, Zonaras, Cedrenus, &c., have displayed the love, rather than the talent, of fiction.
As soon as time and accident had removed those faithful counsellors from the throne, the emperor of the West insensibly descended to the level of his natural genius; abandoned the reins of government to the ambitious hands which were stretched forwards to grasp them; and amused his leisure with the most frivolous gratifications. 1) ascribes to Pulcheria the government of the empire and the education of her brother; whom he scarcely condescends to praise. A public sale of favour and injustice was instituted, both in the court and in the provinces, by the worthless delegates of his power, whose merit it was made to question.3 The conscience of the credulous prince was directed by saints and bishops,4 who procured an Imperial edict to punish as a capital offence, the violation, the neglect, or even the ignorance of the divine law.5 Among the various arts which had exercised the youth of Gratian, he had applied himself with singular inclination and success to manage the horse, to draw the bow, and to dart the javelin; and these qualifications, which might be useful to a soldier, were prostituted to the viler purposes of hunting. Socrates, though he affectedly disclaims all hopes of favour or fame, composes an elaborate panegyric on the emperor, and cautiously suppresses the merits of his sister (l. The fifth volume of a 12 volume set of Gibbon’s magesterial history of the end of the Roman Empire, one of the greatest works of history written during the Enlightenment. This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Ambrose — First Civil War, against Maximus — Character, Administration, and Penance of Theodosius — Death of Valentinian II. The Homeric cento is still extant, and has been repeatedly printed, but the claim of Eudocia to that insipid performance is disputed by the critics. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. — Second Civil War, against Eugenius — Death of Theodosius fame of Gratian, before he had accomplished the twentieth year of his age, was equal to that of the most celebrated princes.
A more attentive view of the life of Gratian may perhaps suggest the true cause of the disappointment of the public hopes. 25) in borrowing some strokes from the modern Greeks.74 Socrates (l. The most ancient account of her history is in John Malala (part ii. [Her story has been told agreeably by Gregorovius in his Athenais (ed.
His apparent virtues, instead of being the hardy productions of experience and adversity, were the premature and artificial fruits of a royal education. 53) gives a true character of Theodosius; and I have followed the example of Tillemont (tom.