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Galen will establish the concept of humors (phlegm, blood, black bile and yellow bile) that determine both health and personality.
Belief in these four humors will dominate medicine and biology for many centuries. 180-Pausanias records a description of the skeleton of the hero Ajax.
1171-As later chronicled by Ralph of Coggeshall in Essex, a river bank collapses to reveal giant fossil bones that are attributed to a 40-foot-tall man. 1200-Aristotle's writings, preserved largely by Muslim scholars, become available to Europeans.
476-The last western emperor of the Roman Empire is deposed. 512-Townspeople in a district of Constantinople present a book on plants to their patron, Julia Anicia.
Juliana's codex will stand as perhaps the best compilation of Western knowledge about plants for the next 1,000 years. 713-A Japanese chronicle, the , which will remain influential for centuries. 1125-Philippe de Thaun produces the first French bestiary (known to later historians).
He also writes an important work on erosion, perhaps describing the concept of superposition. It is based primarily on the Latin , a comprehensive work on the natural world.
In it, he argues that natural phenomena result from natural forces. 1150-Abbess and polymath Hildegard of Bingen authors a work describing the unicorn, and stating that the creature is attracted only to high-born women, not peasants.
610-425 BC-Philosophers Thales, Anaximander, Pythagoras, Xenophanes and Herodotus propose that marine fossils found inland lived in the sea, and that the now dry land was once underwater. (The myth is probably inspired by remains.) 58 BC-Marcus Aemilius Scaurus displays the skeleton of the "monster of Joppa," said to have a 40-foot backbone and ribs taller than elephants.
(It is probably a fossil mastodon or rhinoceros.) c.
424-In , Augustine of Hippo (Saint Augustine) recounts the discovery of an enormous tooth in Utica (Tunisia), and attributes the tooth to a giant.