Validating assessments for students with disabilities 24 girl chet no in punjab
Criterion-referenced tests are sometimes misunderstood. Although these types of test can involve the use of a cutoff score (e.g., the point at which the examinee passes if the score exceeds this number), the cutoff score is not the criterion.
Rather, the criterion refers to the content area domain that the test is intended to assess (Witt et al., 1998).
Most norm-referenced test batteries include a manual and/or computerized scoring program that (1) provides information regarding the normative, or standardization, sample; (2) provides information on reliability and validity, (3) provides language and presentation of items administration and scoring information, and (4) provides guidelines for the interpretation of the test results.
Norm-referenced test performance is generally summarized as one or more types of scores such as age-equivalence, grade-equivalence, percentile rankings, stanine, scaled scores, indexes, clusters, or quotients (Mercer, 1997).
A norm-referenced test interpretation, however, would involve whether this student correctly answered more questions compared to others in the normative group. Assessment of at-risk and special needs children (2nd ed.).
Generally, criterion-referenced performance is summarized as percentage correct or represented as a grade-equivalent score (Weaver, 1990; Witt, Elliot, Daly, Gresham, & Kramer, 1998).
The former testing instruments yield scores that compare the examinee's scores to that of a representative sample (the normative group) of same-age or grade peers.
The latter type of testing instrument involves comparing an examinee's score to a predetermined criterion (such as a school curriculum). Academic achievement tests and cognitive tests, commonly referred to as IQ tests, are well known examples of norm-referenced, standardized tests given to individuals.