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However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out.If these beverages, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, which was introduced there 6000 years later.Many countries define legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine; these typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production.There are also wines made from fermenting other fruits or cereals, whose names often specify their base, with some having specific names.Wines made from plants other than grapes include rice wine and various fruit wines such as those made from plums or cherries.Some well known example are hard cider from apples, perry from pears, pomegranate wine, and elderberry wine. The earliest known evidence of wine comes from Georgia (Caucasus), where 8000-year-old wine jars were found.
Archaeological evidence has established the earliest known production of wine from fermented grapes during the late Neolithic site of Hajji Firuz in the northern Zagros Mountains or early Chalcolithic in the northern edge of the Middle East.
The earliest chemically attested grape wine was discovered at Hajji Firuz in the northwestern Zagros Mountains, ca. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine may slightly predate this, with the earliest wine-making likely having taken place in Trans-Caucasia (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), through the region between Eastern Turkey, and Northwest Iran.
A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine.
Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine.
These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir (the special characteristics imparted by geography, geology, climate, viticultural methods and plant genetics), and the production process.